The interest of the mechanical vibrations reaches the Industrial Maintenance going hand in hand with Preventive and Predictive Maintenance, in the interest of warning which means a vibrating element in a machine, and the necessary prevention of failures that bring the vibrations in the medium term.
The main interest for the maintenance should be the identification of the predominant vibration amplitude detected in the component or machine, determining the causes of vibration, and correcting the problem they represent. The effects of mechanical vibrations are the efforts and tensions increase, energy loss, wear of materials, and the most feared: Fatigue damage of materials, as well as unwanted noise in the workplace, etc..
- Frequency: The time required to complete one cycle of vibration. In studies of vibration are used CPM (cycles per second) or Hz (hertz).
- Displacement: The total distance that describes the vibrant element, from one end to another of his movement.
- Speed and acceleration: As the previous relational value.
- Direction: The vibrations may occur in 3 linear directions and 3 rotational directions
- Types of vibrations.
- Free vibration: vibration caused by a system due to an instantaneous excitation.
- Forced vibration: vibration caused by a constant excitation due to the causes of mechanical vibrations
Here, there are the most common reasons why a machine or element of it can vibrate:
- Vibration due to unbalanced (rotating machinery).
- Vibration due to misalignment (rotating machinery)
- Vibration due to eccentricity (rotating machinery).
- Vibration due to the failure of bearings
- Vibration caused by problems of gears and belts (play, lack of lubrication, friction, etc.).